This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation at the expense of the federal program "Research and scientific-pedagogical personnel of innovation Russia in 2009-2013" on the theme "Socialization of children and adolescents in terms of ethno-cultural educational environment" (№ 14.740.11.0574 on October 5 2010).
One of the problems of ethnomusical education is the formation of ethnomusical thinking of the younger generation that would restore, preserve and develop folk music traditions, preserve the folk music culture. Problems associated with musical abilities' development excited and worried many researchers. Development of various musical abilities are devoted B.V. Asafiev, S.N. Belyaeva-Ekzemplyarskoy, N. Garbuzova, N.M. Garipova, I. Zemtsovskogo, M. Karasev, V.V. Medushevsky, E.V. Nazaikinskii, S.M. Petrikova, N.A. Petrushina, N.V. Suslova, B.M. Teplov, K.V. Tarasova, L.V. Shamina, etc. However, the problem of revealing of the essential characteristic of ethnomusical thinking did not reflect in the scientific literature.
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Ethnomusical thinking, which is formed in the process of comprehension of folklore material, has its own peculiarities due to the significant special features, which has a folk music art. Folk music art is an artistic phenomenon, the integrity, which is hidden attitude, sensation and outlook of the people, is encoded the energy message of their ancestors. In the folk song united spiritual sense, sensual nature, energy and adequate musical structure, achieved an identity of content and form, the unity of "subsings and elementary signs" (J. Yiranek). In folk music, a large amount of information transmitted on an unconscious level, by "charging" special power in the setting of human energy field to the frequency of the energy field of folk singing melodies, of resonating on its frequency. Folk song is not born as a result of the confrontation's experiencing of the world and personnal sensation of the world, that often happens in the classical tradition, but arises from the position sympathetic to the world, kinship with this world, love and belongingness to the people and nature, harmony of Macro-and Microcosm.
This position of sensation of the world (mirochuvstvennaya) affects blissfully on the human soul, and this is a power of folk music, this is its vitality, the indestructible vitality. Intonation of beauty of life (V. V. Medushevsky) - that permeates popular melodies, and this property makes a folk art of music attractive for different generations, carries a "space of true sensation of the world (mirochuvstvovaniya)" [1. P.49], which every song, phrase and popevka are full. "One's own" and "another's" are blended in the folk song, and this "another's" is intonation formulas selected by centuries, it is "a feeling of thought" of several generations of ancestors, which bring together the wisdom and the beauty of their sensation of the world (mirochuvstvovaniya).
In connection with the foregoing, ethnomusical thinking is a process realized in the intoning. It is a process of reflecting of reality and artistic creation-correction of subjective images based on intonation "constants" formed in the musical consciousness and which carry ethnic identity of orientation and the musical language of each nation. Holistic, advanced musical thinking may be a simultaneous process:
- Operating with tones, steps, intervals;
- Operating with popevkami, melodic phrases;
- Operating with emotional and semantic signs;
- Operating with spiritual-energy information.
Ethnomusical thinking is a process of spiritual and intonation to communicate with the world, people and himself through ethnomusical language. During this communication a man "disobjectified" ("raspredmechivaet") intonation codes, musical text, conditioned by the Cosmo-Psycho-Logos (G. Gachev) of people, and "objectified" them at the level of internal creative transforming activity (cosensation-cointoning (sochuvstvovanie-sointonirovanie), adjusted in accordance with the specific narodopevcheskoy tradition), and at the level of the external "intonation", so fellowship is going on the "tradition", yourself, and all people.
Ethnomusical thinking is a set of abilities: the ability to a holistic reading of intonational information (smyslozvukov), differentiation of single digits (meaning, significance), the ability to one-stage linkages between the images, intonation (signs, values), the capacity for correcting received intonational meanings in accordance with narodopevcheskoy tradition, the ability of producing new signs, meanings in the framework of national identity, the capacity for creative modeling of given symbols (meanings, values) in accordance with their plans.
In the musical thinking, there are the same kinds of operations, as in conventional thinking: definition, comparison, analysis, synthesis, grouping, classification, opinion, conclusion. However, in the course of musical thinking on the folk-base a man operates as meaning, knowledge, signs as intonations, popevkami, phrases, tones, constantly adjusting them in accordance with narodopevcheskoy tradition of the ethnic group.
In the course of the folklore intonation (performance) ethnomusical process of thinking includes the following steps:
- foreboding of intonation-genre character of songs;
- search of intonation archetype in "pantry storage";
- search of personal and meaningful sense, "resonating" to particular mood, coordination with psychological situation;
- correction of intonation formula in accordance with the specific narodopevcheskoy tradition;
- analytic-synthetic processing and ordering of characters in the intonational form;
- unconscious and conscious simulation of tune in the musical consciousness;
- intoning with a constant evaluation of their singing and adjusted in accordance with the desired emotional attitude and tradition;
- intoning with a constant supervision, both horizontally and vertically (in the polyphonic singing);
- for ensemble performance "tuning" in general "resonating" to Space, peace, soul, body, "immersion" in the highest sense;
- the implementation of "catharsis", satisfaction, pleasure at the coincidence of an "ideal" presented sound with performing tunes;
- consolidation in the "pantry storage" derived meanings.
Ethnomusical thinking is a creative process. One of the important indicators of ethnomusical thinking is the ability to model new musical symbols (abstract and concrete) based on an extensive range of life events and images in reliance on tradition.
Musical information plays a major role in ethnomusical thinking, as coming from the outside, and accumulated in the "pantry storage", and is also available in the "pantry of unconscious". Hearing, imagination, and muscular-motor system are involving in the process of obtaining music information. One part of the incoming musical information, meanings, values, and curled in intonation, is in the musical consciousness of the person evaluating and correcting, in accordance with the inner world of man, the other part of the information received unconsciously, to bodily-motor level, and a third part is taken for granted, thanks to the "amenity" "closeness" inner peace. Then there is more information that corresponds to the inner potentialities of the soul, then people perceives more closer the product, the spiritual experience, belonged to ethnic group, individuals.
Foundations of ethnomusical thinking laid from infancy through the accumulation of a certain stock of intonation and auditory representations in the "pantry storage". A certain part of the musical information already exists due to the genetic memory. On this basis, to 6-7 years the primary, elementary ethnomusical thinking is formed. A great hindrance to the establishment of the foundations of ethnomusical thinking is early satiety, satiety mass genres of musical art, and on this basis, blunting the "national flair" (Asafiev). Established on the "grammar and phonetics" of major-minor system, the noise, ritmoblokah, "the standards of recognition" hinder the development of ethnomusical thinking.
During the development of ethnomusical thinking a dialogue with modernity and with the last "episistemoy", and for a dialogue with modern ethnomusical culture representative of the ethnic group, sensing the new signs, meanings, intonations, must exercise "a ethno-preserving function", protecting intonation symbols of native music. In a dialogue with the past, with the Tradition a man realizes "conscious antropostroitelstvo" (A.A. Toropova).
Ethnomusical thinking has a characteristic of the qualitative development from simpler forms to more complex forms.
Stage I - an unconscious level of ethnomusical thinking: the unconscious motor responses, the reference to "pantry of the unconscious" for "advice" about this or that musical behavior, acceptance or rejection of this or that, a "purification of the soul" from negative feelings;
Stage II - a low level of ethnomusical thinking: operating tones, emotional and sensory signs, sounds in the sound cell, motor reaction, unconscious variation, improvisation within one emotional code to a limited amount of sound;
Stage III - an elementary level of ethnomusical thinking: analytic-synthetic processing and ordering of elementary signs (intonation, popevok), usage of a certain musical behavior (double-, single-line melody), handling emotional and sensual meaning;
Stage IV - an average level of ethnomusical thinking: handling of art and figurative meaning, intonation constants in the intonational shape (the approach to tradition);
Stage V - a high level of ethnomusical thinking: creative handling of "subznakami and signs" in accordance with a certain tradition in the framework of a coherent intonational form. Consider these steps in more detail.
Stage I - an unconscious level of ethnomusical thinking involves "pantry of the unconscious". A.G. Asmolov gives a classification of unconscious phenomena occurring in the "pantry of the unconscious", among which it is of interest to us the phenomena of first class - the"standard, the ceremony, the norms of our culture" , which are in this aspect energy codes, intonational popevochnym dictionary, intonemami of this or that musical behavior, intonation "masks" of this or that feelings and emotions.
In the deep "basement" of subconscious protointonation lives - "a vague premonition of Music" (V.V. Medushevsky), filled with "true and clean energy" [1. P.12]. In a representative of ethnic group it is laid at the level of the personal unconscious. K.T. Jung introduced the concept of collective unconscious, which is based on archetypes, universal input, vnelichnostnye substrakty of some psychological phenomena. For us, these ideas are of great interest, as proving the thought of the possibility of inheritance of ethno-specific model of musical behavior, which were fixed during the evolution of ethnic and musical thinking.
In the first stage of ethnomusical thinking carried unconscious motor activity: the unconscious micro-motion ligaments (in perception), the movement of head, hands, feet, the movement of the eyeball, the changing facial expressions. If the intonation of the product are similar the intonation dictionary of a man, if a human body of the listener resonates surge of music, if it sounds the most opportune time (so close in speed to the speed of nervous processes of excitation and inhibition), then in that case there is a sympathy. Folk music, in which polished the optimal codes of any emotion on an unconscious level always resonates because it appeals to the lowest "basement unconscious" - the collective unconscious, liberated man, removing muscle and psychological clips, erasing traces of adverse effects. Lullabies, thanks to its harmonious structure, harmonious blend of smooth melodies, tempo, uniform, quiet pulse, tone, dynamics, impact profoundly on the physiological processes in the body, normalizing the heart rate, respiratory rate, pressure, etc.
Lyrically, the songs of family and consumer topics require intense singing, and it is transmitted to the performer and the listener, "stopping up" of negative information channels are cleared, the person feels relieved, he feels the state of "artistic catharsis." Vitalizing capita effect is bringing not only by the whole folk music, but by its ethnic identity. Etnosvoeobraznaya music provokes in the unconscious structures of human relatives and related images, tones that are enhanced by such a resonating and become accessible to consciousness "(AV Toropova), thanks to this person reveals not only the personal and meaningful sense of music, but also profoundly awares of their belonging to the ethnic group, native musical culture, sense of psychological security. The unconscious is an important element of ethnomusical thinking at various stages.
Stage II - a low level of ethnomusical thinking. At this stage, it happens the handling of sounds, tones, intonations, timbres, the search of zvukosmysla, chuvstvosmysla. Man tries to comprehend the reality and his feelings by the sounds, typical intonations (anger, summon).
In folk music, many intervals have a certain tone of emotional connotation:
- For sekundovoy intonation, on the one hand, fluency, melodiousness (as in child pripevkah and rhymes) is characterized, on the other - the tension of intonation, recitative (as in the calendar songs);
- Minor third intones in a solo song culture gently, discreetly, secretly (lullabies), vague, uncertain, questioning (zaklichki, teaser), tragic (in laments);
- Major third is characterized by soft, comfortable (in the children's nursery rhymes, byword), drama (in the bridal laments);
- Intervals of fourths, fifths, sixths bear the cries, cry, cries, calls, treatment (usually in the calendar songs), but broad melodic moves not always intones as racing, but can have a smooth character. In the song there is a culture of law: the narrower the interval, the fewer options intonation; wider, the more opportunities intonational variation (Asafiev).
At this stage ethnomusical thinking is not only directed at the handling mikrosmyslami, but also on awareness of interval-stupenevyh relationships in harmony. Most often, people instinctively varies tune, tones terms in a small volume. Process of creating of musical thinking is not aimed at the creating of a new meaning, melody, but at the working of an emotional code at the fixing it in the musical consciousness.
At this level of development in the process of active ethnomusical thinking involved solo-song equivalent of intonation - popevka. Popevki-tones accompany all human life, because they carry the most important thing for a man - joy, sorrow, pain, elation, request - and are always in demand in different situations. Folk songs realized the need for human emotional expression, and also served as a communicative function, therefore, carried with it such intonational complexes that have been stereotyped, expressing "average", close to many people emotional codes. This is how the typical popevki stable, and intonation symbols, which is a combination of spiritual, emotional and acoustic principles. Musical intonations, merged with speech intonation, absorbed the emotions of the masses of people, under the influence of certain conditions, depending on the characteristics of sound production and perception begin otkristallizovyvatsya in public hearing consciousness and become zvukokompleksy. Such "intonational popevochny Dictionary" (Asafiev) is the result of accumulation of intonation and auditory representations: "clots of intonations" form in the right hemisphere on the basis of a concrete sensing thinking a generalized version of the standard tone, which is laid in the "pantry storage" as "words" of intonational popevochnogo dictionary .
Ethnic specificity of folk music is largely dependent on the identity of popevochno-melodic systems evolving for centuries in each ethnic group. The basis of many folk tunes is a chain of typical, expressive, selected by time and national hearing popevok which are carrying national identity of narodopesennoy melody. These popevki-tones, "tacky" and "worn out" from constant use, carry the call of the ancestors, and each representative of ethnic group accepts it and responds to them by gene ears, in the depth of subconscious mind.
However, every nation has the typical emotional constant which was framed in a certain way of depending on the geographical and historical living conditions, mentality, national character and temperament of the people, so typical national unique popevki become an integral part of the intonational thinking of each representative of ethnic group.
Some assistance in ethnomusical thinking has body movements, both conscious and unconscious. In this perspective, intonation becomes a bodily sense-sound generalization [1. P.151]. Folk music, on the whole, is phenomenon "intonational-spiritual-bodily, and many musical texts simply fused with bodily movements, and without bodily expressions, they lose their attractiveness and intensity of exposure, their energy." Folk music "Understands by the body", and it occurs as unconsciously, as in the course of conscious action. "Understanding by the body" disturbs personal and collective unconscious, and on the basis of impulses coming from them, "understanding by the mind" of a musical work happens. At this level the person operates with musical intonations as "the minimized statements of the whole body" [1. S.170]. During the folk intoning hidden intonation is deployed in the "cruel mime-audio tone" (VV Medushevsky) [1. S.170].
Thus, in the second stage ethnomusical thinking appears:
- in the ability to operate mikrosmyslami on popevochno-intonational-interval level;
- in the operation of steps in the ranges under certain fret relations;
- in the ability to trigger bodily and muscular mechanism for "reading" of rolled inflections-meanings and turning them into "cruel mime-audio tone";
- in the ability to simultaneously generalize the above processes and "give" the result as a quality performance tune;
- in the ability to vary the levels in the intervals with the condition of determination of their modal features (especially it can be freely varied in pentatonic, where each sound can take the role of the main support, as there is no gravity distinct because of lack of threetones and semitones).
Stage III - an elementary level of ethnomusical thinking. It involves analytically-synthetic processing and ordering of elementary signs (intonations, popevok) in the tune with the view of the mode; simulation of a certain musical behavior, handling with chuvstvosmyslami within one- or two-line tune.
Developing of the ability to operate the senses, signs within the melody is one of the most important skills. Melos is the main spokesman of thoughts and feelings, emotional and semantic content. The interpretation of the modal organization of folk songs has a great importance for the understanding of musical thinking features at this level.
At the heart of folk melodies is popevka. However, the process of birth of folk melodies, especially of late origin, depends not only on the combination of popevok, but also on the "struggle" of basises within the melody and "control points", which vote seeks to. Thus, in the process of formation of narodopevcheskogo melody it used (by Asafiev) :
- moving from basis to basis;
- opevanie of basis;
- jump (change of lines) and the filling of the shock ("sounding space") (in the pentatonic it fills with tones and third);
- contraction and expansion of melodic speed;
- desire of tune to the tonic in alternation of filled and unfilled irregular moves;
- "closure" of tune with the appearance of the tonic at the end of phrase;
- "reminder" with constantly returning to one or two frequently repeated tones;
- formation of "complex conjugation tones" - popevok and rhythmic formulas;
- repetition, alternation, comparison, variation of popevok;
- use of square of question-answer structure;
- energetic start of melody with "the top of the source".
A special role for the formation of a national musical thinking are "tunes-formula", i.e. tunes, which are the result of the initial process of genre synthesis and which are performed with different verbal text relating to a specific point of the ceremony or having a household function. These tunes are also called typical, politekstovymi (EV Gippius). They perform the role of a generalized symbol, ritual "sign" and more often they don't depend on the poetic image of the verbal content. And inside one of the genre are almost no multiple, diverse melodies, and it is about "the genre masks". Such tunes-formulas are adopted by memory and support for developing of the foundations of ethnomusical thinking. Children's folk music called "settler" of such standard tunes, and it promotes the formation of ethnomusical consciousness and thinking.
Musical thinking, formed on the basis of folk, can not be without the creative operating on senses and specific laws, without variation - a repetition of a melodic tune or complex of tunes in a modified form. The variation of the melody suggests a combination and a permutation of popevok, melodic speed, intonation, which, however, generally do not change any genre tune affiliation nor his emotionally-semantic nature. During tunes improvising an important role plays typical popevki, which serve as reference points to create a melody. For example, one of the principles of variation - "calendar" (Asafiev) : in tune with the structure of Part 4 + B3 the main melodic motion goes on in tercio, a quart is left empty and serves as a suboporoy tertsovoy cell. However, to create a self-valuable "song-and-tight" (Asafiev) melody, it is necessary to avoid monotony, use different popevki and intonations with care for the integrity of the tune. Created tunes are constantly compared with the traditional tunes, tunes-"masks", are ground by next generations, and only after this folk song has the right to live forever like an energy message, concentrated in the century experience.
Ethnomusical thinking at this level operates the signs not only horizontally but also vertically in the form of the original form of polyphony-geterofonii when the main melody acquires with "new shoots" (Asafiev). At this level, it is possible creating another kind of polyphony - "drone" dia(6ypAOHHaH диафония), when the second voice is a "pedal" - ostinantnoe return to a dominant sound (or two). Harmonic thinking at this level is still very conservative and closely tied to popevochnomu thinking by horizontals because thinking builds the vertical in the form of the same popevki.
Thus, ethnomusical thinking at this stage is characterized by complex abilities such as: -the ability to analytically-synthetic processing of abstract and concrete signs, manifested specifically in the ability to organize the movement of the melody by moving from basis to basis, opevaniya of basis, striving to basis during the alternation of filled and unfilled moves, "closures" of tune by basis, the ability to pull together and extend the melodic turns, perform jumps and completion of the jump, the ability to repeat, rotate, compare, vary popevki; the ability to organize sound space in the relationship of music and rhythmic form and poetry song;
- the ability to combine a melody with a tone of voice, to decorate it by intonation and expressive speech "tags" (glissandirovaniem, interrupting, "ihanem", interjections, etc.);
- the ability to operate with breathing in general, the qualitative organization of the melody, the ability to operate within the framework of model structures of syllabic and inter-syllabic melodies;
- the ability to use "tunes-formulas" in a certain context, to make sense of their genre affiliation, the ability to operate timbres depending on the genre of the song;
- the ability to variations signs in characters of a single genre and stylistic coloring, of emotional and semantic content;
- the ability to operate the signs in a Two-style drone and geterofonii dia (в условиях двухголосия в стиле гетерофонии и бурдонной диафонии);
- the ability to connect the meanings and acoustic signs with bodily movements, reinforcing their importance and impact.
Stage IV - an average level of ethnomusical thinking. It involves handling of artistic and figurative meaning, signs, values in a more expanded (as compared to the third stage) intonational form in reliance on the national tradition.
Folk music, like music in general, is the phenomenon of intonation. Musical folklore is not peculiar Character fine, it carries the "energy of mirochuvstvovaniya of typical representative of the ethnic group" (V. Medushevsky). The world around us appears generally, conditionally by zvukosimvolah, and it is not a random phenomenon, and a tradition polished with centuries. In the increasingly archaic folk music carries a certain emotional tone of our ancestors, "codes" of emotional states, "clusters" of human energy, differently expressed and displayed: "intonational fable prototypes of music is located in the socio-cultural space - time. Intonational language of music keeps the memory of its history of mankind "[1. P.58].
Artistic and figurative language of different nations is united in its essential, archetypal forms, which allows people of different nationalities perceive music of various ethnicities and ages. There were a synthesis of world perception, space, by many people and a selection of adequate characters which brought confidence and emotional, and genre, and style, and distinctive national characteristics. "Pervomuzyka" of peace, nature, space is refracted in the conscious and subconscious of people under the influence of many factors: the outlook, the national character, social relationships, life, etc. Strong, organized life, the growing consciousness of the people gives rise to strong and developed tunes. And in the folk song these typical plots are drawn by the laws of tradition in a particular national style. As noted by V. Medushevsky, "cultural styles, genres, whole epochs, along with stuffing their social and ideological content are decreasing the size of intonation. These different streams are compressed in the musical-language intonation of culture -national, historical, individual style, figurative and thematic tone of the newly revived in the creative events of later times "[1. P. 57].
Folk song is a microcosm of sounding space, the outside world and the musical consciousness of the masses of people, a particular of ethnic group, as embodied in a particular intonational form and executed in accordance with tradition. It should be noted that works of folklore with advanced intonational form is a unity predyntonatsii (protointonatsii) and the specific intonations reflecting the spiritual and sensual values. Folk song has a simple, complete the form, but this form is a holistic model of "the sound's behavior". Thus, at this level ethnomusical thinking includes:
- The ability to communicate with their ancestors over time, with representatives of ethnic group in
- The ability to operate the emotional and spiritual meanings within the framework of the expanded product based on subtext (worldview, everyday life and ethnicity);
- The ability to compare new information with their experience and "birth" of neoplasm of personal meaning, "spiritual information", which gives an idea of the "I and the cosmos", "I and the world" ,"I and other people";
- The ability to use specific signs, elements of musical language in the whole form, taking into account the specifics of the genre and national identity, the ability to "wreath and raspleteniyu" (Asafiev) of popevochno-podgolosnoy tissue, the ability to operate the timbre, the ability to variations in musical rhythmic forms in their relationship with the song verse, the ability to tune the separation and opposing him votes in the 2-and 3-voice polyphony, and the ability to transfer themes from one voice to another party;
- The ability to mix singing with dancing movements in the compositions, gestures.
Stage V - a high level of ethnomusical thinking. It involves creative handling "subznakami" and signs in accordance with a certain kind of national tradition in the framework of a coherent intonational expanded form, handling of an art "community"of genre, style, formal order, creating new meanings, values, symbols, intonational forms in line with specific national narodopevcheskoy tradition. I.e. the high level of ethnomusical thinking involves creative coordination, correction and modeling of meanings and specific characters at all levels: phonic, syntactic and composite in the national tradition. Ethnomusical thinking at this stage represents a tool by which a person resonates "the sound of life", hidden-sounding "harmony of the world", collapsed in the crystals of narodopesennogo creativity. Owner of a high-level of ethnomusical thinking are usually the master singers, people who can not only perform folk songs at a high level, but can also create them, vary the lyrics, melodies within a particular tradition.
Thus, we can say that ethnomusical thinking personality is the complex ability which includes imaginative reflection of the world, creative adjustment and creation of images, linking them according to folk tradition, which allows to keep folk singing (narodopevcheskuyu) manner of intonation, the ability to compose melodies and variations, and henchmen, to bequeath to future generations of folk music culture.
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- Asafev B.V. About folk music / Comp. I. Zemtsovsky, A. Kunanbaev. AL: Music, 1987. 248 с.
- Bershad T. The problem of modal classification: Soviet Music. 1971. № 8. S. 34-55.
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Авторы: Карпушина Лариса Павловна, Кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры хорового дирижирования, пения и методики преподавания музыки, докторант кафедры педагогики Мордовский государственный педагогический институт имени М.Е. Евсевьева Российская Федерация г.Саранск E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org